// Bhulley Audio System

Since 1995, patient a team of 25 committed craftsmen at the Audio Engineering department of Sanjannagar Institute, viagra 60mg have been continuously working to design and construct a range of high-end audio reproduction and monitoring equipment—Power Amplifiers, viagra Pre-Amplifiers and Speakers. During this time, the department has invented designs and technologies that are a radical departure from the existing amplifier and speaker design concepts and construction methods. All the components (except for vacuum tubes, resistors and diodes) of our systems are designed and made through our indigenously developed machines and techniques. We have already made and tested two smaller versions and one bigger version of this model. All these are based on the same design concept and criteria which we are following.

The main concern behind this work has been a faithful reproduction of what we call ‘musical reality’. The object has been to achieve musical fidelity for any genre rather than ‘Hi-Fi’, so as to connect fully the listener’s mind to the artist’s intent. This task has involved translating the understanding of the elements of musical sound such as timbre, resonance, harmonics, etc., into the craft of these audio reproduction and monitoring systems.

Since April 1996 the department has been developing a range of amplifiers and speakers under the name of ‘Bhulley’. The main concern behind this work has been that when sound reaches the listener’s ear, it should be a relaxed musical sound, which retains its musical integrity qua the source. This task has involved translating the understanding of the elements of musical sound such as timbres, resonances, body (in sound), harmonics, etc., and how they are put together to produce musicality in musical sound into the science and engineering of audio amplifier, and speaker systems. Thus, continuous work has been and is taking place in philosophizing, theorizing and developing new concepts and then testing them experimentally in the design and construction of these systems.

Following are some design departures that we have made:

  • The volume control (attenuator) is not a resistor.
  • Hand made solid wired circuits.
  • No resistors in the audio path
  • Hand-made cones of three types of wood for base, mid and upper-mid.
  • Components in the audio path have been designed and made in-house including all input and output transformers and all silver wires, including their annealing and enamel coatings (6 to 18 layer coatings), with the exception of the thinnest (0.0032 mm and 0.0040mm) used in the tweeter voice coils which have been made and supplied by a  Swedish company, ‘Kanthal’, based in California
  • The speaker double baffle is virtually non-resonating. It is safely filled with water, which has been tested for 8 years. This water circulation is for almost total energy absorption in the baffle.
  • We had to learn to make our own silver foil capacitors and the machines for making them. The capacitors in the audio path are of low value.
  • The interconnects between the phono-pre-amp, line pre-amp, power amps and speaker drivers are also pure silver.
  • We have used about 14.5 kg of pure silver (99.99%) for the making of this system, designed and made as one integrated unit.
  • On an average each component has gone through more than a dozen prototypes before being finalized.


This whole project was started 16 years ago as a tool in the pursuit of excellence in the making, recording and reproduction of a rediscovery of South Asian Classical music without any extraneous considerations. Unfortunately in the prevailing circumstances our end product is not of much use locally. Therefore we hope to share it with music lovers abroad if it meets with their approval.

We have been using it in three areas:

  1. For a critical analysis by artists of their work for further evolving and improving their own work and also as an aid to higher level teaching in music.
  2. We have used this system with advantage as monitors in our own recording studio. Since we avoid using equalization, sound shaping, compression, etc in our full-track stereo 15 ips tape recordings which we mix down directly without going through multi-tracking so we need these as monitors to ensure precise positioning and polar pattern settings for highly accurate and sensitive tube condensers such as Brauner VM1s, Neumann M-149s, etc.
  3. We have found these very useful for sensitive music listeners for any music of their choice from any country or period.

At this stage we feel the time has come for an objective assessment and evaluation by our peers abroad. If we find confirmation for what we have been doing we plan to make microphone pre-amps; input and output pre-amps for various recording devises including tube-based DA converters and tube-based mixing and equalizing modules for the important musical inputs (vocal or instrumental) in conjunction with other digital inputs in a final mix down.